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初中英语重点语法——主语从句

发布者: L先生 | 发布时间: 2020-1-13 10:21| 查看数: 31| 评论数: 0|帖子模式

一、主语从句的概念与类型

主语从句在复合句中作主句的主语,引导主语从句的词有从属连词that, whether以及连接代词who, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever和连接副词when, where, why, how等. 例如:
That she was chosen made us very happy.她当选了使我们很高兴.What caused the accident is a complete mystery.是什么导致了这次事故还完全是一个谜.Whether she will come or not is still a question.她是否来还是一个问题.Which team will win the match is still unknown.哪个队会赢得这场比赛还不知道.Whoever comes to the party will receive a present.参加聚会的每一个人都将收到一份礼物.When they will start has not been decided yet.他们何时出发还没决定.
注意:上述例句中的主语从句都是放在句首,但有时为了使句子结构平衡,避免"头重脚轻",常用it作形式主语,而把从句放在后面. 例如:
It is a pity that she has made such a mistake.她犯了这样一个错误,真是遗憾.It depends on the climate whether they are going shopping today.他们是否今天去购物还得看天气情况.
这样就构成了下面一些常用句型:1)It is + adj. / n. +从句It is a pity/shame that...遗憾的是……It is possible that...很可能……It is unlikely that...不可能……2)It +不及物动词+从句It seems/appears that...似乎……It happened that...碰巧……3)It + be +过去分词+从句It is said that...据说……It is known to all that...众所周知……It is reported that...据报道……It is believed that...据信……;人们相信……It is suggested that...有人建议……It must be pointed out that...必须指出……It has been proved that...已证明…….例如:It is believed that at least a score of buildings were damaged or destroyed.据信,至少有二十座楼房遭到破坏或彻底毁掉.It is suggested that the meeting should be put off.有人建议会议延期召开.It s reported that three people were killed in the accident and five were hurt badly.据报道,事故中三人丧生,五人重伤.It is known to all that Taiwan is an inseparable part of China.众所周知,台湾是中国不可分割的一部分.
[巩固练习]1. Does _______ matter if he can t finish the job on time?A. this B. that C. he D. it2. It worried her a bit _______ her hair was turning grey.A. which B. that C. if D. for3. _______ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language.A. There B. This C. That D. It
二、学习主语从句应该注意的几个问题
1)引导词that与what
what既有引导主语从句的作用,同时又在从句中作句子成分(主语、宾语、表语等).这时what相当于all that/everything that...,常译成"所……的(东西、事情、话等.)";而that只起连接作用,本身无实际意义,在从句中也不担当任何句子成分.但that引导的主语从句放在句首时,不能省略that.例如:
What is done can t be undone. (谚语)已成定局,无可挽回.What we can t get seems better than what we have.我们得不到的东西似乎比已得到的要好.That we should work out a plan to deal with the present serious situation is important.我们应该制定一项计划来应付目前严峻的形势,这一点非常重要.That a new teacher will come to teach us geography is true.一位新老师将来教我们地理,这是真的.
[巩固练习]
4. _______ what they told me really true?A. Has B. Is C. Does D. Have5. It matters little _______ a man dies, but _______ matters much is _______ he lives.A. how; what; how B. how; it; how C. why; it; why D. that; what; that6. _______ she couldn t understand was _______ fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons.A. What; why B. That; what C. What; because D. Why; that7. It is pretty well understood _______ controls the flow of carbon dioxide in and out the atmosphere today.A. that B. when C. what D. how8. _______ fashion differs from country to country may reflect the cultural differences from one aspect.A. What B. That C. This D. Which9. -What made her parents so angry?- _______ she had failed in the examination.A. As B. Because C. Since D. That
2)引导词if和whether
if和whether引导动词后的宾语从句时一般可通用,但介词后的宾语从句、主语从句(放在句首时)、表语从句常由whether引导.例如:
Whether she will go home or not is unknown.她是否回家还不得而知.Whether we shall raise ducks or geese remains to be decided.我们是养鸭还是养鹅仍没决定.=It remains to be decided whether/if we shall raise ducks or geese.
[巩固练习]10. _______ we ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather.A. If B. Whether C. That D. Where
3)其它引导词连接代词who, which, whom, whose有各自的意义,起连接作用,并在从句中充当语、宾语、表语、定语等;连接副词when,where, why, how等有各自的意义,起连接作用,并在从句中充当状语.
[巩固练习]11. -Do you remember _______ he came?-Yes, I do. He came by car.A. how B. when C. that D. if12. It was a matter of _______ would take the position.A. who B. whose C. whom D. whomever13. -I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.-Is that _______ you had a few days off?A. why B. when C. what D. where14. I read about it in some book or other, does it matter _______ it was?A. where B. what C. how D. which

三、语气
It is necessary / natural / important / strange...+ that-clause这类句型里,that所引导的主语从句中谓语动词用"should +原形",表虚似语气.例如:
It is necessary that the problem should be settled at once.这个问题必须马上解决.It s strange that he should have gone away without telling us.他竟然没向我们说一声就走了,真是奇怪.
[巩固练习]15. It is necessary that a college student _______ at least a foreign language.A. masters B. should master C. mastered D. will master
四、以it作形式主语的主语从句与强调句型的区别
"It be + adj./n. + that-clause"与强调句型均有It be...that...之类的语言标志,但不同的是:
①前者中的that从句是主语从句.若删掉其中的It be和that,则剩余部分不论结构还是语意都不能成为一个句子;但若将后者中的It be和that去掉,则剩余部分的结构和语意仍能构成一个完整的句子.
②强调句型译为汉语时可加上"正是……"或"就是……"之类的字眼,而主语从句则不可以.请比较下面两个句子:
It is surprising that Mary should have won first place.令人惊奇的是玛莉竟然获得了第一名.It is Mary that has won first place.正是玛莉得了第一名.
第一句话中的It是形式主语,that引导的是主语从句.句中的It is和that无法删除,一旦删除句子就不成立.
第二句是强调句型,其中的It is和that可以去掉,因为没有It is和that句子仍然很通顺.
Key: 1-5 DBDBA 6-10 ACBDB 11-15 AAADB

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