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小学英语基础知识汇总大全

发布者: L先生 | 发布时间: 2019-11-5 09:57| 查看数: 31| 评论数: 0|帖子模式

基础知识
1.字母:26个字母的大小写
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

2.音标:48个音标

3.词汇:词汇量,近反义词

4.句子:大小写,标点符号



语法知识

1名词:名词单复数,名词的格

(一)名词单复数
1.一般情况,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds

2.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches

3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries

4.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives

5.不规则名词复数:
man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice

child-children, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese

不可数名词的复数就是原型:paper, juice, water, milk, rice, tea

(二)名词的格
(1) 有生命的东西的名词所有格:
a) 单数后加 ’s 如: Lucy’s ruler my father’s shirt
b) 以s 结尾的复数名词后加 ’如: his friends’ bags
c) 不以s 结尾的复数后加 ’s children’s shoes

并列名词中,如果把 ’s加在最后一个名词后,表示共有, 如:
Tom and Mike’s car 汤姆和迈克共有的小汽车

要表示所有物不是共有的,应分别在并列名词后加’s
Tom’s and Mike’s cars 汤姆和麦克各自的小汽车

(2)表示无生命东西的名词通常用“ of +名词”来表示所有关系:如:
a picture of the classroom a map of China

2冠词:不定冠词,定冠词种类

(1)不定冠词:a / an
元音开头的可数名词前用an :
an egg / an apple / an orange / an eraser / an answer / an ID card / an alarm clock / an actor / an actress / an e-mail / an address / an event / an example / an opera / an houran old man / an interesting book / an exciting sport / an action movie / an art lesson /

(2)定冠词:the
定冠词的用法:
(1)特指某(些)人或某(些)物:The ruler is on the desk.
(2)复述上文提到的人或物:He has a sweater. The sweater is new.
(3)谈话双方都知道的人或物:The boys aren’t at school.
(4)在序数词前:John’s birthday is February the second.
(5)用于固定词组中:in the morning / afternoon / evening

不用冠词的情况:
(1)专有名词前:China is a big country.
(2)名词前有定语:this , that , my , your , some, any , no 等:
This is my baseball.
(3)复数名词表示一类人和事:Monkeys can’t swim. They are teachers.
(4)在节日,日期,月份,季节前:Today is Christmas Day. It’s Sunday.
(5)一日三餐前:We have breakfast at 6:30.
(6)球类 棋类运动前:They often play football after class. He plays chess at home.
* 但乐器前要用定冠词:I play the guitar very well.
(7)学科名称前:My favorite subject is music.
(8)在称呼或头衔的名词前:This is Mr Li.
(9)固定词组中:at noon at night by bus

3代词、形容词、副词

代词:人称代词,物主代词
人称代词物主代词
主格宾格
第一
人称单数I(我)me my(我的)
复数we(我们)us our(我们的)

第二
人称单数you(你) you your(你的)
复数you(你们)you your(你们的)

第三
人称单数he(他)him his(他的)
she(她)her her(她的)
it(它)it its(它的)
复数they(他们/她们/它们)them their(他们的/她们的/它们的)
形容词,副词:比较级,最高级

(一)、形容词的比较级
1、形容词比较级在句子中的运用:两个事物或人的比较用比较级,比较级后面一般带有单词than。比较级前面可以用more, a little来修饰表示程度。than后的人称代词用主格(口语中可用宾格)。

2.形容词加er的规则:
⑴ 一般在词尾加er ;
⑵ 以字母e 结尾,加r ;
⑶ 以一个元音字母和一个辅音字母结尾,应双写末尾的辅音字母,再加er ;
⑷ 以“辅音字母+y”结尾,先把y变i,再加er 。

3.不规则形容词比较级:
good-better, beautiful-more beautiful

(二)副词的比较级
1.形容词与副词的区别(有be用形,有形用be;有动用副,有副用动)
⑴在句子中形容词一般处于名词之前或be动词之后
⑵副词在句子中最常见的是处于实义动词之后

2.副词比较级的变化规则基本与形容词比较级相同(不规则变化:well-better, far-farther)

4数词:基数词、序数词

基数词
(1)1-20
one,two,three,four,five,six,seven,eight,nine,ten,eleven,twelve,thirteen,fourteen,fifteen, sixteen,seventeen,eighteen,nineteen,twenty

(2)21-99 先说“几十”,再说“几”,中间加连字符。
23→twenty-three,34→thirty-four,45→forty—five,56→fifty-six,67→sixty-seven,78→seventy-eight,89→eighty-nine,91→ninety-one

(3)101—999先说“几百”,再加and,再加末两位数或末位数;
586→five hundred and eighty-six,803→eight hundred and three

(4)l,000以上,先从右往左数,每三位数加一个“,”,第一个“,”前为thousand.第二个“,”前为million,第三个“,”前为billion

1,001→one thousand and one
18,423→eighteen thousand,four hundred and twenty-three
6,260,309→six million two hundred and sixty thousand three hundred and nine
750,000,000,000→seven hundred and fifty billion

序数词
(1)一般在基数词后加th
eg.four→fourth,thirteen→thirteenth

(2)不规则变化
one→first,two→second,three→third,five→fifth,eight→eighth,nine→ninth,twelve—twelfth
(3)以y结尾的十位整数,变y为ie再加th
twenty→twentieth, forty→fortieth, ninety→ninetieth
(4)从二十一后的“几十几”直至“几百几十几”或“几千几百几十几”只将个位的基数词变为序数词。
twenty-first,two hundred and forty-fifth

基数词转为序数词的口诀

基变序,有规律,词尾加上-th.
一,二,三,特殊记,词尾字母t,d,d.
八去t,九去e, ve要用f替。
ty将y变成i,th前面有个e.
若是碰到几十几,前用基来后用序。

5介词:常用介词:in, on, at, behind等

1.at表示时间概念的某一个点。(在某时刻、时间、阶段等)。
at 1:00(dawn,midnight,noon)在一点钟(黎明、午夜、中午)

2.on
1)表示具体日期。
注:(1)关于"在周末"的几种表示法:
at(on)the weekend在周末---特指
at(on)weekends在周末---泛指
over the weekend在整个周末
during the weekend在周末期间
(2)在圣诞节,应说at Christmas?而不说on Christmas?

2)在(刚……)的时候。
On reaching the city he called up his parents.
一到城里他就给父母打了一个电话。

3.in
1)表示"时段"、"时期",在多数情况下可以和during互换,前者强调对比,后者强调持续。in(during)1988(December,the 20th century)在一九八八年(十二月、二十世纪)

6动词:动词的四种时态

(1)一般现在时:
一般现在时的构成
1. be动词:主语+be(am, is, are)+其它。如:I am a boy. 我是一个男孩。
2. 行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。如:We study English. 我们学习英语。
当主语为第三人称单数(he, she, it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。
动词+s的变化规则
1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks
2.以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes
3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies

(2)一般过去时:
动词过去式详解 动词的过去式的构成规则有:
A、规则动词
① 一般直接在动词的后面加ed:如 worked , learned , cleaned , visited
② 以e结尾的动词直接加d:如 lived , danced , used
③ 以辅音字母加y结尾的动词要改y为i再加ed(此类动词较少)如 study – studied carry – carried worry – worried (注意play、stay不是辅音字母加y,所以不属于此类)
④ 双写最后一个字母(此类动词较少)如 stopped
B、不规则动词(此类词并无规则,须熟记)小学阶段要记住以下动词的原形和过去式:sing – sang , eat – ate ,
see – saw , have – had , do – did , go – went , take – took , buy – bought , get – got , read – read ,fly – flew , am/is – was ,are – were , say – said , leave – left , swim – swam , tell – told , draw – drew , come – came , lose – lost , find – found , drink – drank , hurt – hurt , feel – felt

(3)一般将来时:
基本结构:
①be going to + do;
②will+ do. be going to = will
I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.
(4)现在进行时: am,is,are+动词现在分词
动词现在分词详解 动词的ing形式的构成规则:
① 一般的直接在后面加上ing , 如doing , going , working , singing , eating
② 以e 结尾的动词,要先去e再加ing ,如having , writing
③ 双写最后一个字母的(此类动词极少)有:running , swimming , sitting , getting


句法

陈述句

(1)肯定句:是指用肯定的语气来陈述的句子,如:I’m a student. She is a doctor. He works in a hospital.

There are four fans in our classroom. He will eat lunch at 12:00. I watched TV yesterday evening.

(2)否定句:含有否定词或表示否定意义词的句子,如:I’m not a student. She is not (isn’t) a doctor.

He does not (doesn’t) work in a hospital. There are not (aren’t) four fans in our classroom.

He will not (won’t) eat lunch at 12:00. I did not (didn’t) watch TV yesterday evening.
                
疑问句

一般疑问句:是指询问事实的句子,此类句子必须用“yes”,或“no”来回答。

特殊疑问句:以特殊疑问词(what , where , who , which , when , whose , why , how等)开头引导的句子。此类句子应该问什么就答什么,不能用“yes 、no”来回答。
                   
There be句型

There be 句型与have, has的区别

1、There be 句型表示:在某地有某物(或人)

2、在there be 句型中,主语是单数,be 动词用is ; 主语是复数,be 动词用are ; 如有几件物品,be 动词根据最*近be 动词的那个名词决定。

3、there be 句型的否定句在be 动词后加not , 一般疑问句把be 动词调到句首。

4、there be句型与have(has) 的区别:there be 表示在某地有某物(或人);have(has) 表示某人拥有某物。

5、some 和any 在there be 句型中的运用:some 用于肯定句, any 用于否定句或疑问句。

6、and 和or 在there be句型中的运用:and 用于肯定句, or 用于否定句或疑问句。

7、针对数量提问的特殊疑问句的基本结构是:
How many + 名词复数 + are there + 介词短语?
How much + 不可数名词 + is there + 介词短语?

8、针对主语提问的特殊疑问句的基本结构是:
What’s + 介词短语?
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