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高中英语24个语法梳理(四)

发布者: L先生 | 发布时间: 2020-7-16 13:49| 查看数: 291| 评论数: 0|帖子模式

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动词的基本形式
绝大多数动词都有五种基本形式:动词原形、一般现在时第三人称单数、过去式、过去分词和现在分词。

一般现在时主语是第三人称单数时,谓语动词后要加s或es,其变化规则与名词变复数的方法大体相同:

1规则动词变化表
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2不规则动词变化表
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★ 系动词
1概念及特点
连系动词,即系动词,是一个表示谓语关系的动词。它必须后接表语通常为名词或形容词。

连系动词的功能主要是把表语(名词、形容词、某些副词、非谓词、介词短语、从句)和它的主语联系在一起,说明主语的属性、特征或状态。它有自己的但不完全的词义,不能在句中独立作谓语,必须和后面的表语一起构成句子的谓语。 它是虚词。

2系动词分类
⒈ 状态系动词:用来表示主语状态,只有be 一词。
如:He is a teacher.他是一名教师。(is与补足语一起说明主语的身份。)

⒉ 持续系动词:用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep,rest,remain,stay,lie,stand。
如:He always kept silent at meeting.他开会时总保持沉默。
This matter rests a mystery.此事仍是一个谜。

⒊ 表像系动词:用来表示“看起来像“这一概念,主要有seem,appear,look。
如:He looks tired.他看起来很累。
He seems (to be) very sad.他看起来很伤心。

⒋ 感官系动词:主要有feel,smell,sound,taste。
如:This kind of cloth feels very soft.这种布手感很软。
This flower smells very sweet.这朵花闻起来很香。

⒌ 变化系动词:这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,变化系动词主要有become,grow,turn fal( asleep),get,go,come,run。
如:He became mad after that.自那之后,他疯了。
She grew rich within a short time.她没多长时间就富了。

⒍ 终止系动词:表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove,turn out,表达“证实”“变成“之意。
如:The rumor proved false.这谣言证实有假。
The search proved difficult.搜查证实很难。
His plan turned out a success.他的计划终于成功了。(turn out表终止性结果)

⒎ 使役动词:let,have,make使,让……
① Let/make somebody do sth
如:The teacher lets/makes them clean the classroom after school.
② Make sb/sth adj.
如:The story makes me happy.
The color makes it look beautiful.
③ Have somebody do sth让某人做某事
如:My mother haves me make the bed.
④ Have sth done让某物被……
如:I have my hair cut/washed.

3特例
有些动词它们既可以用作实义动词,又可以用作连系动词。另外be还可用作助动词。它们的用法不同,词义和句型结构也有所不同。
如:Look at the blackboard,please.请看黑板。(look用作实义动词)
He looks a little tired.他略显疲倦。(look用作连系动词)
They are at work.他们在工作。(are用作连系动词)
They are working.他们正在工作。(are用作助动词,帮助构成现在进行时)







★ 及物动词和不及物动词
英语中按动词后可否直接跟宾语,可把动词分成不及物动词与和及物动词。

1不及物动词
不及物动词后不能直接跟有动作的对象(即宾语)。若要跟宾语,必须先在其后添加上某个介词,如to,of ,at后方可跟上宾语。具体每个动词后究竟加什么介词就得联系动词短语。
如:listen to,look at….

⒈ look 看 (vi.)+……+宾语(即不能直接加宾语).
如:Look! She is singing.
Look carefully! (注意:carefully 是副词,不是名词,故不作宾语)
look at (看…….)+宾语
如:Look at me carefully! (me是代词,作宾语)

分清及物不及物动词

分清动词的及物不及物是在英语学习中必须解决的首要问题。动词及物与不及物通常有以下几种情况:
① 主要用作及物动词。及物动词后面必须跟宾语。可以用于:"主+谓+宾";"主+谓+双宾";"主+谓+宾+宾补"结构。
如:He reached Paris the day before yesterday.
Please hand me the book over there.
They asked me to go fishing with them.
类似的还有:buy, catch, invent, found, like, observe, offer, prevent, promise, raise, find, forget, receive, regard, see, say, seat, supply, select, suppose, show, make, take, tell…
② 主要用作不及物的动词。不及物动词后面不跟宾语。只能用与:"主+谓"结构。
如:This is the room where I once lived.
类似的还有:agree, go, work, listen, look, come, die, belong, fall, exist, rise, arrive, sit, sail, hurry, fail, succeed....
③ 既可以用作及物又可以用作不及物的动词,其意义不变。如begin 都是作"开始"讲。
如:everybody , our game begins.
let us begin our game.
类似的还有:start, answer, sing, close, consider, insist, read, learn, prepare, pay, hurt, improve....
④ 既可以用作及物又可以用作不及物的动词,其意义完全不同。这类动词作不及物动词是一个意义;而作及物动词时却是另一个意义。
如:lift作不及物动词时是指烟雾的"消散"。
例句:we saw the mountain when the clouds lifted.
作及物动词时是"升高;举起"。
例句:He lifted his glass and drank.
类似的还有:
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需要注意的一点是:少数不及物动词唯一可跟的宾语是同源宾语。
如:I dreamed a dream last night.







★ 助动词
1概念
助动词是帮助主要动词构成各种时态,语态,语气以及否定或疑问结构的动词,助动词分为时态助动词和结构助动词两种。

2特点
⒈ 助动词自身没有词义,不可单独使用。
如:He doesn't like English他不喜欢英语。(doesn't是助动,无词义;like是主要动词,有词义。)

⒉ 助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来:
表示时态
如:He is singing.他在唱歌。
He has got married.他已结婚。
② 表示语态
如:He was sent to England.他被派往英国。
③ 构成疑问句
如:Do you like college life?你喜欢大学生活吗?
④ 与否定副词not合用,构成否定句
如:I don't like him.我不喜欢他。
⑤ 加强语气
如:He did know that.他的确知道那件事。
⑥ 最常用的助动词有:be,have,do,shall,will,should,would
⑴ 半助动词
在功能上介乎主动词和助动词之间的一类结构,称为半助动词。常见的半助动词有be about to,be due to,be going to,be likely to,be meant to,be obliged to,be supposed to,be willing to,have to,seem to,be unable to,be wiling to等
⑵ 情态助动词
a. 情态助动词包括will(would),shalshould),can(could),may(might,must,need,dare,ought to,used to,had better 后接原形不定式。
b. 情态助动词不受主语的人称和数的限制。
c.两个情态助动词不能连用。
中文:他将能够及时完成此事。(误)He will can finish it in time.
⑶ 基本助动词
基本助动基本助动词只有三个:be、do、have,他们没有汇意义,只有语法作用,和实意动词一起构成谓(叫复合谓语),表达否定、疑问、时态、语态和其他语法关系。其基本形式和作用如下表:
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3助动词的分类
⒈按结构分:时态助动词和结构助动词

⒉ 时态助动词有:be(am,is,are;was,were),have(has,had),will(would)和shall(should)和主动词一起构成各种时态、语态和语气。

⒊ 结构助动词:do(does,did),本身无词义,它仅为无助动的动词提供助动词,构成疑问结构和否定结构。

4助动词具体用法
时态助动词同主动词一起构成十六种时态和十种被动语态结构。注意:被动语态没有完成进行时和将来进行时态。

⒈ 助动词be的用法
助动词be 有八种形式:
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注意:它们的肯定、否定、缩略形式。第一人称的反意疑问句的句尾中用aren't;be的现在词和过去分词的否定形式是在前加not being和not been它们没有缩略形式。
be +现在分词,跟现在分词构成各种进行时态
如:We are playing video games on TV last night.我们在电视上玩电子游戏。
② be+过去分词,跟过去分词构成被动语态
如:He's not respected by the press.他们不受报界的尊重。
注意:be+过去分词”不一定都是被动语态,有时可能是系表结构,两者主要区别是:被动语态表示以主语为承受者的动作;而系表结构则表示主语的特点或所处的状态。
③ be(am,is,are)动词不定式,可表示下列内容
⑴ 用现在时表示最近、未来的计划或安排。说明:这种用法也可以说成是一种将来时态表达法。
如:He is to go to New York next week.他下周要去纽约。
⑵ 表示命令
如:You are to explain this.对此你要做出解释。
⑶ 征求意见
如:Who is to go there?谁该去那儿呢?
⑷ 表示相约、商定
如:We are to meet at the school gate at seven tomorrow morning.们明天早晨7点在校门口集合。

⒉ 助动词have的用法:
助动词have的五种形式:
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⒊ 助动词do的用法:
结构助动词do三种形式
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① 帮助构成实意动词一般现在时和一般过去时的疑问式和否定式:
如:Do you know John?你认识约翰吗?
Mary didn't come to see me yesterday.玛丽昨天没来看我。
You like this picture,don't you"?你喜欢这张画,不是吗?
② 代替前面已经提到过的动词,避免重复:
如:—Do you smoke?你抽烟吗?
—Yes,I do是的,我抽。
I moke. So does he.我抽烟。他也抽。
He doesn't like it.Neither do I.他不喜欢,我也不。
③ 帮助加强谓语动词的语气,该do、does或did要重读;did加强过去时谓语动词语气时,这个谓语动词要用原形。
如:l do like you.我真的喜欢你。
She/He does like you.他确实喜欢你。
She/They/We did go swimming yesterday.她/他们/我们昨天确实去游泳了。
⑴ 另外:如果谓语中有助动词或情态动词,要加强语气时就能用do的各种形式来强调,一般方法是把需要强调的词全用大写字母来书写。
⑵ 一般祈使句前面加助动词do构成肯定的强语势祈使句,末尾加感叹号。
⑶ 第二人称祈使句强调语气有两种其它形式:
a. 用never 代替don't.
b. 主语you不省略或不加呼语。
如:Find yourself someone else to shout at.你跟别人喊去!
c. 当谓语动词前有否定意义的副词(never,seldom,hardly,rarely,scarce等)时,起强调作用的助动词(do,does,did)要加在该动词前面而不是加在副词的前面。
如:He seldom does come late.他的确极少迟到。
d. 注意:be,have,do都能做实意动词用:
如:These are computers.这些是计算机。
We're having breakfast.饿们正在吃早饭。
I did some washing last night.我昨晚洗了衣服。
④ 构成否定祈使句,说明:构成否定祈使句只用do,不用did和does。
如:Don't go there.不要去那里。
Don't be so absent-minded.不要这么心不在焉。
⑤ 用于倒装句。
如:Never did I hear of such a thing.我从未听说过这样的事情。
说明:引导此类倒装句的副词有never,seldom,rarely,little,only,so,well等。

⒋ 助动词 shall 和will的用法:
① 助动词shall/will构成一般将来时;should/would构成过去将来时。
如:We shall/will be rich,if we succeed.我们将很富有,如果我们成功的话。
They will be rich,if they succeed.他们将很富有,如果他们成功的话。
They said they would be rich,if they succeeded.他们说他们将很富有,如果他们成功的话。
② shall用在第一、三人称作主语的疑问句中,来征求意见,表示“要不要……”。
如:Shall I go now?要我现在就走吗?
Shall the reporters wait outside or what?要记者们在外面等还是怎样?
③ shall用于所有人称,表示说话人的决心、保证、许诺、威胁、警告、命令等强烈的感情。
如:You shall have an answer by tomorrow.到了明天,你会得到答复的。
The enemy shall not pass.决不允许敌人过去。
The ceremony shall not be postponed/put off.仪式不会推迟的。
④ would可以表示过去的习惯,类似used to
如:He would come to see me on Sunday when he was here.他这里的时候,星期天就来看我。
⑤ wil可以表示“愿意、肯、会、固执”等意义,而非将来
如:l will pay you for it.我会付给你钱买下它的。
⑥ will可以表示倾向、习惯(总是会,老是等意思),在否定句中可以表示不肯、不能”等意思:
如:Boys will be boys.男孩子总归是男孩子。
0il and water will not mix.油和水是不会混合在一起的。
This machine won't work.这台机器不工作了坏了。
These things will happen.这样的事情总是会发生的。

5再论助动词
⒈ be have和do(主要的助动词)
① 在否定句和疑问句中,be与do的用法遵从助动词的下列规则:
⑴ 否定句中,助动词+not
如:He isn't coming.他不来了。
lt did not matter.没关系。
⑵ 疑问句中,主语+助动词
如:Was he waiting?他当时在等吗?
Does she see us?她看到我们了吗?
② have在疑问句及否定句中的位置一般与助动词相同
如:Has he(got )to go?他一定得走吗?
但有时也用do/did形式
如:Does he have to go?他一定得走吗?
③ be与带to的动词不定式连用
如:They are to wait for us at the station.将在车站等我们。
have 后也可接带to的动词不定式,但有两种结构除外。do 与不带to的不定式(即动词原形)连用:
如:Did he write?他写信了吗?
④ be have和do作助动词使用时,需要带分词或不定式,但在答句或评语等中常省略。
如:—Have you seen t-你看见了吗?
—Yes,I have(seen it)一是的,(我看见了)。
⑤在be,have和do作普通动词使用而有自己本身的意思,如have有“拥有”的意思、do有“干/从事”的意思等时,它们只能是句子中唯一的动词:
如:He is lazy.他很懒惰。
He has no job.他没有工作。
He does nothing.他什么事也不干。
在这种情况下,do与助动词do/did 连用:
如:What do you do in the evening?你一般晚上做什么?
have可以用两种方法进行变化,即用助动词do/did 或不用:
如:Have you(got)time?/Do you have time?你有空吗?

⒉ can,could,may,might,must,ought,will,would,shall和should 是情态动词,也称情态助动词。
情态动词的第三人称单数后不加s
如:lmust我必须
he must他必须
I can我可以
he can他可以
② 它们在构成否定形式和疑问形式时均遵循助动词的规则
eg.will not…
ought not……
will he……?
bught he..?
③ 它们没有真正的过去时态。情态动词有四种过去形式,即could,might,should和would,但用途有限。
④ 情态动词没有不定式或分词形式,所以不能用于进行时态。
⑤ 除ought之外其他情态动词后一律跟不带to的动词不定式(即动词原形)
如:You should pay./You ought to pay.你应该付钱。
情态动词后面应带动词原形(而非分词等),但有时该动词可省略
如:—Can you understand? -你明白吗?
—Yes,I can(understand)-是的(,我明白)。

⒊ need,dare和used(半情态动词)
当need和dare作助动词时,可遵循情态动词的句式,后面跟不带to的动词不定式
如:He need not wait.他不用等。
但也可与do/did 形式连用,这时后面要接带to的动词不定式:
如:He doesn't dare to interrupt.他不敢插嘴。
They didn't need to wait.他们不需要等。
注意:need和dare也可作普通动词用,有词形变化,并可与分词连用:
如:He needs help.他需要帮助。
They dared me to jurmp.他们激将我,要我跳下去。
② used有时说成used to,只指过去的事。它的否定式和疑问式常常遵循助动词的规则
如:l used not/usedn't to go.我一向不去。
虽然严格来讲used不带不定式,但经常可以听到didn't use to和did he/she等+use to?的形式。

6分析助动词和情态动词的异同
⒈ 相同点:
① 都可构成疑问句,并且都能用在肯定或否定的简略式回答中。
如:Was the car going beyond the speed limit?车是否在超速行驶?
Yes.it was.是的,在超速行驶。
② 都可与not连用构成否定句
如:At first,it didn't sell very well.初,它的销路不好。
③ 都能构成反意疑问句。
如:You didn't let me drive,did you?你没有让我开车,对吗?
④ 都可以在so…或neither(nor)…句型中,代替前面的动词(短语)。
如:You can't do it,nor can I,nor can anybody else。不能那样做,我也不能,任何人都不能。

⒉ 不同点
谓语中只能有一个情态动词,但可有多个助动词。
如:He was being trained to be a doctor.他时正接受培训,要成为一名医生。







情态动词
情态动词是表示能力、义务、必须、猜测等说话人的语气或情态的动词。

1can
⒈ 表能力:can表能力时意味着凭体力或脑力或技术等可以无甚阻力地去做某事。
如:I can climb this pole. 我能爬这根杆子。
He is only four , but he can read.他只有4岁,但已认得字了。
Fire can’t destroy gold. 火烧不毁金子。
因为can不能和其他助动词连用,所以表示将来式时用will be able to
如:You will be able to skate after you have practiced it two or three times.你练习两三次后就会溜冰了。

⒉ 表可能性:多用于否定与疑问结构中,但也可用在肯定句中。
如:Can the news be true? 这消息可能是真的吗?
It can’t be true. 它不可能是真的。
What can he possibly mean? 他可能是什么意思?
can 用在肯定句中表示理论上的可能性(一时的可能)。
如:A horse in the center of London can cost a lot of money.
Attending the ball can be very exciting.
The road can be blocked. 这条路可能会不通的。
may 在肯定句中表示现实的可能性。
The road may be blocked. 这条路可能不通了。

⒊ 表示允许(和may意思相近)常见于口语。
如:Can (May) I come in ? 我能进来吗?
Can I smoke here ? 我可以在这里抽烟吗?

2could的用法
⒈ 表过去的可能和许可,(多用于间接引语中)
如:At that time we thought the story could notbe true.那时我们认为所说的事不可能是真的。
Father said I could swim in the river.爸爸说我可以在河里游泳。

⒉ 表过去的能力
如:I could swim when I was only six.我刚六岁就能游泳。
Could在肯定句中表示过去的能力时,常表抽象的一般的能力。
He could be very naughty when he was achild.
他小时候会是很顽皮的。

⒊ 表“允许”。可表示委婉客气的提出问题或陈述看法
Could I use your bike?
Yes, you can.
I'm afraid I couldn’t give you an answer today.恐怕我今天不能回答你。
The teacher said you could go to the store for sweets.老师说你可以去商店买糖。

⒋ Could/can+have done 结构表示对过去发生的事情的“怀疑”或“不肯定”。 could 加完成式还用于肯定句时一般表过去可能完成而却未完成的动作。
如:Can they have won the basketball match?他们赢了那场篮球赛吗?
What you referred to just now can have made her very sad.你刚刚所谈到的可能令他很伤心。
You could have completed the task a little earlier.你本来能早点完成任务的。(但事实上并没有提前完成任务)
I could have passed my examination easily but I made too many stupid mistakes.我本可以轻易通过考试,但我犯了太多不该犯的错误。
如表具体做某一件事的能力时,则须用 be able to。
He was able to translate the article without a dictionary.他可以不用词典翻译那篇文章。
Can表示一贯的能力,be able to表示客观能力和通过努力可以达到的能力
I can’t swim. But I am sure I will be ableto swim through more practicing.
The fire spread through the hotel, but everyone was able to get out.
When the boat sank he was able to swim to the bank.

3may 的用法
⒈ 表示请求、可以、允许。
如:You may drive the tractor. 你可以开那台拖拉机。

⒉ 当回答由may 引起的问题时,否定答语要用must not,表示“不许可”“不应该”“不行”。
如:May I come in?
Yes, you may.
No,you can’t
No, you may not .
No ,you mustn’t
No ,you’d better not.

⒊ may /might 推测性用法可能
如:He may be right.
He may not come today  (可能不)
He may /might come tomorrow.
注意: 只用于肯定和否定句中,不用于疑问句中。

⒋ might比may可能性更小
如:He might get a job.
He may get a job.

⒌ may no 可能不  can not不可能
如:He may not come
He can’t come

⒍ 表建议(可和as well 连用)
如:You may(might)as well stay where you are.你还是原地待着好。(may as well 有“还是……的好”的含义)

⒎  表祝愿
如:May you be happy!

44. might
⒈ 表过去的“可能”和“允许”多用于间接引语。
如:She said that he might take her dictionary.
她说他可以拿她的词典去用。
除在间接引语中外,might一般不表示过去的“可能”与“许可”。表过去的“可能”可用could,表过去的“许可”可用were (was)allowed to。

⒉ 表现在的“可能”,其可能性要比may小。
如:Electric irons could be dangerous; they might give you a severe shock.电熨斗会有危险,它可能电着人。

⒊ may (might) + have +done 表示对过去发生行为的推测,含有“想必”、“也许是”的意思。
如:It may have been true.这事也许是真的。
He might not have settled the question.他可能尚未解决那个问题。

5must 的主要用法
⒈ 表示必须、必要
如:We must do everything step by step .我们必须按部就班地做一切事情。
如:Why must you always bother me?为什么你偏要打扰我呢。

⒉ must be + 表语的结构,通常表示猜测,含有“一定”之意。(只用在肯定句中)
如:He must be an honest boy. 他一定是个诚实的男孩。
This must be your room. 这一定是你的房间。

⒊ must 的否定式有两个:当回答由must引起的问题时,否定答复要用needn’t或don’t have to 表示“不必”、“无须”、“用不着”、“不一定”的意义。当表示“不应该”、“不许可”、“禁止”时,就用must not。
如:Must I go tomorrow?
明天我必须去吗?
Yes, please.
是的,请吧!
No , you needn’t.
不,你不必去。

⒋ must +have +过去分词的结构,常用在肯定句中,表示对过去发生行为的推测,含有“一定”、“准是”的意思。否定和疑问句用can。
如:She must have studied English before.她以前一定学过英语。

⒌ have to的含义与must是很接近的,只是have to 比较强调客观需要,must着重说明主观看法。
如:I must clean the room.(主观想法)
I have to clean the room.(客观需要)
另外,have to 能用于更多时态:
如:We had to be there at ten .我们得在十点钟到那里。
We will have to reconsider the whole thing.这一切我们将不得不重新加以考虑。
have to 的否定式:don’t have to do 表示“不必做……”之意。

6ought to 的用法
⒈ Ought to 后接动词原形,表义务,但不及must 那样具有信心
如:You don’t look well. You ought to go to see the doctor.你气色不好,应该去看病。

⒉ Ought to 用于否定句,其否定形式可缩略为oughtn't
如:You oughtn’t to smoke so much. 你不应该抽这么多烟。

⒊ Ought to也可以用于疑问句
如:Ought you to smoke so much?你应该抽这样多烟吗?

⒋ Ought to 在间接引语中表过去时形式不变
如:He said you ought to tell the police.
他说你应该去报告警察。

7shall的用法
⒈ 用于第一人称征求对方的意见
如:What shall I wear on the journey? 我路上穿什么好呢?
Shall we dance? 我们跳舞好吗?

⒉ shall 用于第二、三人称时表允诺,警告,命令,威胁(现已少见)
如:She shall get her share. 她可以得到她的一份。
You shall have it back tomorrow.你明天可以将它拿回。

8should
情态动词should一般不应被认为是情态动词shall的过去式,主要用法有:

⒈ 用于第一人称疑问句中询问对方的意愿,但语气较委婉温和
如:What should we do now? 我们现在该怎么办?

⒉ 表示应该、必须,常与must 换用。
如:We should (must) master a foreign languageat least.我们应当至少掌握一门外语。

⒊ “should+be+表语”的结构,表示推测或惊奇。
如:They should be back by now. 他们现在应该回来了吧。
I am sorry that she should be so careless. 我感到遗憾她竟会那样粗心。

⒋“should+have+过去分词”的结构,表示过去该做而实际上尚未做的动作或行为;其否定则表示发生了不应该发生的行为。其同义结构“ought to have +过去分词”,表示过去“早应该”“本当”之意,语气较强。
如:I should have thought of that. 这一点我是应当想到的。(但没想到)
They should not have left so soon.他们不应当走得这么早。(但已走了)

⒌ 在“It is natural (strange, natural, necessary, surprised, impossible,important ) that……”句型中,主语从句中的谓语动词要用should +动词原形”表示“理所当然”“奇怪”“必要”“惊异”等的意思。在lest(以免)、for fear(that) (以防)、in case(以备万一)等之后也要用should+动词原形;在advise, sugest, order, demand, request 等的从句中should+do”
如:It is necessary that he(should) be sent there at once.有必要马上派他到那里去。
It is strange that he should say so. 他会说这样的话真是奇怪。
Let us go at once lest we should be late for the train.我们马上走吧,以免赶不上火车。

9will和would的用法
⒈ 表示意志,决心或愿望。
如:Surely we will support all the people in the world in their struggle for peace.我们一定要支持全世界人民争取和平的斗争。
He would not let me try it . 他不肯让我去试。

⒉ will表示经常性、习惯性、倾向性,would表示过去的习惯行为。
如:He will sit there hour after hour looking at the traffic go by.他会经常一连几个小时坐在那儿观看来往的车辆。
He would come to see me when he was in Beijing.他在北京时,常来看望我。

⒊ 用于第二人称作主语的疑问句中,表示对对方的请求,would的语气比will委碗
如:Would/will you kindly tell me the way to the station? 请问到火车站怎么走?

⒋ 表可能性
如:This will be the book you are looking for.这可能就是你要找的书。
She would be about 60 when she died.他死时大概60岁。

10need和dare的用法
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needn't have v-ed 表示过去做了某事,但没有做的必要,意为“本没必要……”
如:You needn't have waken me up; I don't have to go to work today.


表推测的情态动词句子的反意疑问句
He must/may be in the room, isn't he?
He can't be in the room, is he?
He must have finished the work, hasn't he?
He may have done the work last night, didn't he?


情态动词+行为动词进行式
情态动词+行为动词进行式(即情态动词+ be + v-ing形式),表示推测或评论某动作现在是否正在进行。
如:He must be playing basketball in the room.
She may be staying at home.


情态动词+行为动词完成进行式
情态动词+行为动词完成进行式(即情态动词+ have been + v-ing 形式),表示推测或评论过去某动作是否正在进行或一直在进行。
如:They should have been meeting to discuss the problem.
He may / might have been buying stamps in the post office when you saw him.


used to +v, be used to +v-ing和be used to +v
⒈ used to +v意为“过去常常”,“过去一直”;
be used to +v-ing/ n(名词)意为“习惯于”;
be used to +v意为“被用来(做某事)”。

⒉ used to只表示过去,而be used to +v-ing / n可表示现在、过去或将来。
如:He used to smoke. Now he doesn’t.
He’s quite used to hard work /working hard.
The knife is used to cut bread.


用作情态动词的其他短语
would rather,would sooner,would (just) as soon, had rather, hadbetter, had sooner, can not but, may (just) as well等可用作情态动词。
如:The soldier would sooner die than surrender.
The brave soldier would as soon dieas yield to such an enemy.
I'd rather walk than take a bus.
If you do't like to swim, you may just as well stay at home.
这些短语后一般直接跟动词原形。would (had) rather,would (had) sooner, would (just) as soon后可跟that 引导的从句,that 常省去,从句要用虚拟语气。对现在和将来的假设用过去时,对过去的假设用过去完成时。
如:I would rather you came on Sunday.
I would sooner you hadn’t asked me to speak yesterday.

动词的时态和语态
640?wx_fmt=png.jpg
I.单项填空
1.【2019·江苏】 22.The musician along with his band members ___________ ten performances in the last three months.
A. gives B. has given C. have given D. give
【答案】B
【解析】考查现在完成时与主谓一致。句意:在过去的三个月里,这名音乐家与他的乐队成员已经完成了十场演出。由“in the last three months”可知,这句话的时态为现在完成时,故排除AD选项。本句主语为the musician,为第三人称单数形式,句中的“along with his band members”是附加成分,故谓语动词要用第三人称单数形式。故选B。

2.【2019·江苏】29.A few months after he had arrived in China, Mr. Smith ___________ in love with the people and culture there.
A. would fall B. had fallen C. has fallen D. fell
【答案D
【解析】考查动词的时态。句意:他到中国几个月后,就喜欢上了那里的人和文化。发生在had arrived之后的动作或状态应用一般过去时。故选D。

3.【2019·江苏】33.They are trying to make sure that 5G terminals_________ by 2022 for the Beijing Winer Olympics.
A. will install B. will have been installed C. are installed D. have been installed
【答案】B
【解析】考查时态和语态。句意:他们正努力确保在2022年北京冬奥会之前安装5G终端。表示在将来某一时间以前已经完成或一直持续的动作,用将来完成时。“5G终端”和“安装”之间是被动关系,用被动语态,故选B。

4.【2019·天津】2.I __________ to send Peter a gift to congratulate him on his marriage,but I couldn't manage it.
A. had hoped B. am hoping
C. have hoped D. would hope
【答案】A
【解析】考查过去完成时。句意:我本来计划在Peter结婚时送他一个礼物的,可是我没有做到。第二个分句中“couldn’t”用的是一般过去时,它之前的动作用过去完成时。故选A。

5.【2019·天津】8.Amy, as well as her brothers, ____________ a warm welcome when returning to the village last week.
A. is given B. are given
C. was given D. were given
【答案】C
【解析】本题考查时态和语态。句意:艾米和他的兄弟们当上周回到村里时,受到了热烈的欢迎。根据last week可知应用过去时,排除选项A和B。as well as连接并列主语,谓语动词就前原则。这句话真正的主语是Amy,她受到热烈欢迎,所以用过去时的被动。故选C。

7.【2018·北京】1. —Hi, I’m Peter. Are you new here? I haven’t seen you around?
—Hello, Peter. I’m Bob. I just _________ on Monday.
A. start       B. have started       C. started       D. had started
【答案】C
【解析】考查时态。句意:——嗨,我是彼得。你是新来的吗?我没有在附近见过你。——你好,彼得。我是鲍勃。我周一刚刚开始住在这儿。根据两人谈话内容可知,Bob现在在这儿,他开始(start)住在这儿是发生在周一的事情,周一是一个过去的时间,故该句应用一般过去时态,C选项正确。

8.【2018·北京】4. Susan had quit her well-paid job and _________ as a volunteer in the neighborhood when I visited her last year.
A. is working       B. was working      
C. has worked      D. had worked
【答案】B
【解析】考查时态。句意:Susan已经辞去了高薪的工作。去年当我探望她的时候,她正在一个社区里做志愿者。Susan辞职发生在她当志愿者之前,had quit是过去完成时态,过去完成时态通俗的说就是“过去的过去”,且结合时间状语when I visited her last year可知,Susan做志愿者是过去的某个时间段发生的情况,故该空应用过去进行时态。B选项正确。

9.【2018·北京】7. China’s high-speed railways _________ from 9,000 to 25,000 kilometers in the past few years.
A. are growing      B. have grown      
C. will grow      D. had grown
【答案】B
【解析】考查时态。句意:在过去的几年里,中国的高速铁路已经从9,000公里增长到25,000公里。该句时间状语为in the past few years。中国高速铁路的增长是从过去一直到现在几年里的情况,故该句应用现在完成时态。B选项正确。

10.【2018·北京】9. A rescue worker risked his life saving two tourists who _________ in the mountains for two days.
A. are trapping    B. have been trapped   
C. were trapping    D. had been trapped
【答案】D
【解析】考查语态和时态。句意:一个救援人员冒着生命危险挽救了两个被困在山里两天的旅游者。“who ___ in the mountains for two days”是定语从句,修饰two tourists,two tourists和trap之间是被动关系,该空应用被动语态。由risked可知,营救人员救游客是过去的事情,被困两天发生在营救人员救了他们之前,即“过去的过去”,该空应用过去完成时态。综上,D选项正确。

11.【2018·天津】13. My washing machine ___________this week, so I have to wash my clothes by hand.
A. was repaired       B. is repaired
C. is being repaired       D. has been repaired
【答案】C
【解析】考查时态。句意:这周我的洗衣机正在修,所以我不得不手洗衣服。根据后句so I have to wash my clothes by hand.可知,洗衣机正在修,故用现在进行时态的被动语态。故选C。

12.【2018·江苏】31. Hopefully in 2025 we will no longer be e-mailing each other, for we _______ more convenient electronic communication tools by then.
A. have developed         B. had developed
C. will have developed        D. developed
【答案】C
【解析】考查时态。句意:希望在2025年,我们不再互相发电子邮件,因为到那时候我们将开发更方便的电子通信工具。根据时间状语in 2025,可知用将来时;再根据时间状语by then到那时,可知用完成时。结合两者可知用将来完成时。故选C。

13.【2018·江苏】
30.I was sent to the village last month to see how the development plan _______ in the past two years.
A. had been carried out        B. would be carried out
C. is being carried out        D. has been carried out
【答案】A
【解析】考查时态。句意:上个月我被派到村里去看看在过去的两年里发展计划是如何执行的。根据句中时间状语last month和in the past two years可知用过去完成时。故选A。

14.【2017·天津】8. I ________down to London when I suddenly found that I was on the wrong road.
A. was driving      B. have driven      C. would drive      D. drove
【答案】A
【解析】句意:我正开车去伦敦这时我突然发现我走错路了。根据固定句型:was/ were doing sth + when (suddenlu) did ... 句意:正在做某事,就在这时(那时)突然,根据句意,故选A。
【名师点睛】这时考查与时态有关的固定句型。:was/ were doing sth + when (suddenlu) did ... 这时一个常用固定句型,是学生必须掌握的重点句型之一,词句型还有另外两种结构:was / were about to do + when did ; had done + when + did 。在这三个句型中,when引导的并列句,意为:就在这时(那时)突然....。

15.【2017·江苏卷】27. He hurried home, never once looking back to see if he _______.
A. was being followed    B. was following      
C. had been followed   D. followed
【答案】A
【解析】
试题分析:考查动词的时态和语态。he和follow是动宾关系,即他被别人跟踪,排除B/D;根据句意“在匆忙赶回家的路上,他从未回头看是否被跟踪”,用过去进行时最合适,故选A。句意:他匆匆忙忙往家赶,就是不回头看一看是否有人跟踪自己。

16.【2017·江苏卷】31.He’s been informed that he _______ for the scholarship because of his academic background.
A. hasn’t qualified       B. hadn’t qualified     
C. doesn’t qualify     D. wasn’t qualifying
【答案】C
【解析】考查动词的时态。句意:他已经被告知由于教育背景的原因而没有资格获得奖学金。qualify for
sth达标,获得参赛资格。由于条件不满足而没有资格做某事,是客观事实,故选C。

17.【2017·北京卷】33. People______ better access to health care than they used to, and they’re living longer as a result.
A. will have  B. have  C. had  D. had had
【答案】B
【解析】句意:人们有着比过去更好的医疗保险,结果他们更长寿。与过去对比是现在,所以than前一句话是用现在的时间,而且后一句用的就是现在时态,所以前面也用现在时态,故选B。

18.【2017·北京卷】29. In the 1950s in the USA, most families had just one phone at home, and wireless phones _______ yet.
A. haven’t invented   B. haven’t been invented   
C. hadn’t invented    D. hadn’t been invented
【答案】D
【解析】句意:在美国20世纪50年代的时候,大多数的家庭家里只有一部电话,并且无线电话还根本没有发明出来。根据句意可知用被动语态,排除AC,事情发生在过去,与现在无关,不用现在完成时,排除B,故选D,过去完成时的被动语态。

19.【2017·北京卷】24. —______ that company to see how they think of our product yesterday?
—Yes. They are happy with it.
A. Did you call    B. Have you called   
C. Will you call   D. Were you calling
【答案】A
【解析】句意:--你昨天有没有给那家公司打电话问问他们对我们的产品感觉怎么样?--打了,他们此刻正用得很开心。空格所在题干有一个很明显的时间状语yesterday,发生在过去,肯定用过去式,故选A。

20.【2016·北京】21. Jack ________ in the lab when the power cut occurred.
A. works    B. has worked   C. was working  D. would work
【答案】C
【解析】考查时态。句意:突然断电时,杰克正在实验室里工作。根据occurred可知,这里指过去某时刻正在发生的事情,断电时,杰克正在工作,综合用过去进行时,故选C。

21.【2016·北京】23. —Excuse me, which movie are you waiting for?
—The new Star Wars. We ________ here for more than two hours.
A. waited      B. wait      
C. would be waiting    D. have been waiting
【答案】D
【解析】考查时态。句意:——打扰了,你们在等哪一部电影?——《星球大战》,我们已经在这儿等了两个多小时了。“for+时间段”与完成时连用,根据语境可知,说话的时候仍然在等,因此用现在完成进行时,故选D。

22.【2016·北京】25. I ________ half of the English novel, and I’ll try to finish it at the weekend.
A. read       B. have read     C. am reading     D. will read
【答案】B
【解析】考查时态。句意:我已经看完了这本英文小说的一半,周末会尽力把另一半看完。发生在过去的动作对现在产生影响,用现在完成时。“看小说”这一动作发生在过去,到目前为止看了一半,故用完成时,故选B。

23.【2016·北京】30. The students have been working hard on their lessons and their efforts ________ with success in the end.
A. rewarded            B. were rewarded  
C. will reward         D. will be rewarded
【答案】D
【解析】考查时态和语态。句意:学生们一直在刻苦学习功课,他们的努力(将来)一定会得到回报。根据句意可知,回报是将来要发生的事情,应该用将来时;efforts和reward是被动关系,应该使用被动语态,故选D。

24.【2016·江苏】22.More efforts, as reported, ______in the years ahead to accelerate the supply-side structural reform.
A. are made B. will be made C. are being made D. have been made
【答案】B
【解析】考查时态语态。句意:正如报道的那样,在未来几年将做出的努力,以加速供给结构改革的速度。本句的时间状语“in the years ahead在未来的几年里”和将来时连用,且efforts与动词make构成被动关系,所以使用被动语态。所以要使用一般将来时的被动语态形式,故B正确。

25.【2016·江苏】
29.Dashan, who _________crosstalk, the Chinese comedic tradition, for decades, wants to mix it up
with the Western stand-up tradition.
A. will be learning   B. is learning
C. had been learning   D. has been learning
【答案】D
【解析】考查时态。本句的时间状语是“for decades几十年来”,该时间状语通常和现在完成的有关时态连用,本句强调这几十年来大山一直努力把中国相声和西方的脱口秀相结合。所以使用现在完成进行时,强调动作的延续性和反复性。故D正确。

26.【2016·天津】3. When walking down the street, I came across David, when I _____ for years.
A. didn’t see         B. haven’t seen     
C. hadn’t seen     D. wouldn’t see
【答案】C
【解析】句意:当沿着街道散步的时候,我遇见了多年未见的David。根据语境,“not see”这个动作发生在come across之前,是过去的过去发生的动作,用过去完成时。故选C。

27.【2016·浙江】9. Silk ______ one of the primary goods traded along the Silk Road by about 100 BC.
A. had become        B. was becoming           
C. has become           D.is becoming
【答案】A
【解析】句意:到公元前100年为止,丝绸已经成为丝绸之路上交易的主要商品之一。时间状语是by+过去时间,谓语用过去完成时。故选A。

28.【2015·北京】22.--Did you enjoy the party?
--Yes,we___by our hosts.
A.were treated   B.would be treated.   
C.treated   D.had treated
【答案】A
【解析】句意:——你喜欢这个聚会吗?——是的,我们的主人很好的招待了我们。根据上一句中的did可知用一般过去时;且we和treated是动宾关系,用被动语态。空中应用一般过去时的被动语态,故选A。

29.【2015·北京】26.In the last few years,China ___ great achievements in environmental protection.
A.has made   B.had made   C.was making   D.is making
【答案】A
【解析】句意:在过去的这些年里,中国在环境保护中取得了很大的成就。由时间状语in the last few years可推知动作从过去一段时间持续到现在并对现在造成影响,用现在完成时。故选A。

30.【2015·北京】27.—Did you have difficulty finding Ann' house?
—Not really.She___us clear directions and we were able to find it.easily?
A.was to give    B.had given   C.was giving   D.would give
【答案】B
【解析】句意:——你觉得找到安娜家的位置困难么?——不会。她告诉我们很清晰的方向,并且我们很容易就找到了。根据题干可知,安娜告诉他们方向发生在他们找到她家之前,因此,发生在过去动作之前的动作要采用过去完成时。故选B。

31.【2015·北京】30. —Dr. Jackson is not in his office at the moment.
—All right. I____ him later.
A. will call   B. have called   C. call  D will be calling
【答案】A
【解析】句意:——Dr.Jackson现在不在办公室。——好的,我待会再打给他。由later可知,表示的是将来要执行的动作,用一般将来时。故选A。

32.【2015·重庆】1.  —Is Peter coming?
—No, he____ his mind after a phone call at the last minute.
A. changes  B. changed    C. was changing   D. had changed
【答案】B               
【解析】句意:彼得来了吗?没有,刚才接到一个电话后改变主意了。根据at the last minute在最后一秒可能发生在过去,故用一般过去时。     

33.【2015·重庆】13.  In my hometown, there is always a harvest supper for the farmers after all the wheat____ cut.
A. will have been       B. will be          C. was         D. has been
【答案】D               
【解析】句意:在我的家乡,麦子丰收过后农民会有一个庆祝晚餐。现在完成时表示动作已经完成,才会举行庆祝活动,故选D项。
         
34.【2015·浙江】8. Albert Einstein was born in 1879. As a child, few people guessed that he       a famous scientist whose theories would change the world.
A. has been      B. had been         
C. was going to be       D. was
【答案】C
【解析】句意:爱因斯坦出生于1879年,小的时候很少人猜到他将会成为一个伟大的科学家,他的理论将会改变全世界。根据句意,应该是表达过去将来时,所以只有C选项符合。该选项是使用过去进行时表将来。A选项是现在完成时(用以表达过去的动作对现在的影响,往往有一些关键的词比如说since或者是for加一段时间),B选项是过去完成时(具备的条件是有两个动词,而且其中一个动作要在另一个动作之前发生,那么这个之前发生的动词就使用过去完成时),C选项是过去进行时(过去进行时表示过去某一此刻正在进行的动作,另外动词going的进行时还可以表达将来),D选项是过去时(表达过去的动作)。结合以上的表述以及后句使用的情态动词would(will 的过去时,用于过去将来时),分析可知答案就是C。

35.【2015·天津】9.  Despite the previous rounds of talks, no agreement______ so far by the two sides.
A. has been reached      B. was reached
C. will reach      D. will have reached
【答案】A
【解析】句意:尽管之前多轮谈判,但到目前为止双方没有达成任何协议。根据句中的时间状语so far“到目前为止”可知用现在完成时。主语agreement与reach为被动关系,根据句意可知选A。

36.【2015·天津】6.  Jane can’t attend the meeting at 3 o’clock this afternoon because she ______ a class at that time.
  A. will teach       B. would teach   
C. has taught       D. will be teaching
【答案】D
【解析】句意:简不能参加今天下午3点钟的会议,因为她那个时候在一个班上课。根据句中的时间状语at that time,指代at 3 o’clock this afternoon,表示在将来的某一时刻正在做某事,故用将来完成时。故选D。

37.【2015·四川】4.More expressways         in Sichuan soon to promote the local economy.
A. are being built   B. will be built   C. have been built  D. had been built
【答案】B
【解析】考查时态。本句为时态题,根据时间状语soon可知,考查了将来时,故选择B。句意为:四川将建设更多的高速公路以促进当地的经济。

38.【2015·陕西】24. At college, Barack Obama didn’t know that he          the first black president of the United States of America.
A. was to become     B. becomes   
C. is to become    D. became
【答案】A
【解析】句意:在大学的时候,奥巴马不知道他将成为美国第一个黑人总统。用过去将来时表示过去某个时间将要发生的事情,所以选A。

39.【2015·陕西】22. Mary         really hard on his book and thinks he’ll have finished it by Friday.
A. worked    B. has been working      
C. had worked     D. has worked
【答案】B
【解析】句意:Marty一直努力写书,我想他到周五为止将已经完成了。用现在完成进行时表示从过去到现在一直进行的动作。所以选B。

40.【2015·福建】30.—Where is Peter? I can't find him anywhere.
—He went to the library after breakfast and   his essay there ever since.
A. wrote B. had written C. has been writing  D. is writing
【答案】C
【解析】考查现在完成进行时。根据句意:---彼得在那里,我哪儿都找不到他。---他在早餐过后就去了图书馆,然后自从那以后他就一直在那里写论文。从句意中可以知道彼得是吃过早餐之后去了图书馆,从那个时候开始他就一直在写论文,这个动作一直延续到了现在,所以用现在完成时。现在完成进行时表示动作从某一时间开始,一直持续到现在。故选C

41.【2015·福建】26.To my delight, I from hundreds of applicants to attend the opening ceremony.
A. was chosen B. was being chosen  
C. would choose D. had chosen
【答案】A
【解析】考查时态和语态。根据句意:让我高兴的是,我从成百上千的参加者中被选中参加开幕式。可以知道这里应该是被动语态,又因为被选中是过去发生的事情,这里只是对过去发生的事情的一般描述,故用一般过去式,故选A。

42.【2015·江苏】30.The real reason why prices ____ , and still are, too high is complex, and no short discussion can satisfactorily explain this problem.
A. were           B. will be           
C. have been          D. had been
【答案】A
【解析】句意:过去和现在价格一直居高不下的真正原因很复杂,简短的讨论解释这一问题无法让人满意。根据题干中“and still are”的提示可知过去价格也居高不下,故用一般过去时,表示过去的状态。故选A项。

43.【2015·安徽】29.It is reported that a space station ______ on the moon in years to come.
A. will be building  B. will be built   
C. has been building  D. has been built
【答案】B
【解析】句意:据报道,人们在接下来的几年里将在月球上建一个空间站。根据“in years to come”可知用将来时,space station和build是动宾关系,应该使用被动语态,故选B。

44.【2015·安徽】24.Just as I got to the school gate, I realised I ______ my bank in the cafe.
A. have left   B. had left  C would leave  D. was leaving
【答案】B
【解析】句意:我刚一到学校门口,就意识到我把书落在餐馆了。realized后省略了that,这里是一个宾语从句,从句时态与主句保持一致,“落下”的动作发生在“意识到”之前,应该用过去完成时,故选B。

45.【2015·湖南】28.He must have sensed that I ________ him. He suddenly glanced at me and said quietly, "Why are you staring at me like that?"
A. would look at B. looked at
C. was looking at D. am looking at
【答案】C
【解析】过去进行时,是表示过去某个具体时刻正在进行的事情或动作,如果没有具体的时间,可以从意义上去把握。句意:他一定是注意到我在看着他。他突然看向我然后轻声问道:“你为什么要那样盯着我看?”根据分析,此句在意义上应该用进行时,又根据此句中的must have sensed和glanced at可知是过去进行时,故选C

II.语法填空
1.(2019全国I卷)In recent years some Inuit people in Nunayut _____ (report) increases in bear sightings around human settlements, leading to a belief that populations are increasing.
【答案】have reported
【解析】考查时态。根据上下文语境,尤其是时间状语in recent years可知,主句用现在完成时态,故填have reported。

2.(2019全国II卷)Picking up her “Lifetime Achievement” award,proud Irene ______(declare) she had no plans to retire from her 36-year-old business.
【答案】declared
【解析】考查谓语动词。根据上下文可知,该句主语为Irene,此处为谓语成分,根据后文had 以及said 可知用一般过去时态,故填declared。

3.(2019全国III卷)Our hosts shared many of their experiences and _____(recommend)wonderful places to eat,shop,and visit.
【答案】recommended
【解析】考查一般过去时态。句意:我们的主人跟我们分享了很多他们的经历并推荐了一些很好的吃饭、购物和参观的地方。“and”前后两个动作“shared”与“recommended”是并列关系,时态一致。故填recommended。

4.(2019浙江卷)When every pupil in the school wears the uniform, nobody ______ (have) to worry about fashion(时尚).
【答案】will have/has
【解析】考查时态。句意:当每个学生在校穿校服时,没有人会担心时尚问题。本句是when引导的时间状语从句,遵循主将从现原则,因此,主句可以使用将来时will do;根据语境可知,本文叙述的是客观事实,因此,本句亦可用一般现在时,主语是nobody,谓语用has。故填will have/has。

5.(2019浙江卷)One study in America found that students' grades _____ (improve) a little after the school introduced uniforms.
【答案】improved
【解析】考查时态。句意:美国的一项研究发现,在学校引入校服后,学生的成绩有所提高。本句是after引导的时间状语从句,前后时态保持一致,从句使用了一般过去式,主句用一般过去式。故填improved。

6.(2018全国I卷)While running regularly can't make you live forever,the review says it      (be) more effective at lengthening life than walking,cycling or swimming.is
【答案】is
【解析】考查时态和主谓一致。本文介绍了跑步的好处,通篇以一般现在时为主。本句中宾语从句与主句的时态应保持一致,故用一般现在时;且宾语从句中的主语为it,故用is。

7.(2018全国II卷)Since 2011, the country       (grow) more corn than rice.
【答案】has grown
【解析】考查时态。由句中的时间状语Since 2011可知,此空应用现在完成时。

8.(2018全国II卷)The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture finds that between 2005-when the government______(start) a soiltesting program which gives specific fertilizer recommendations to farmers-and 2011, fertilizer use dropped by 7.7 million tons.
【答案】started
【解析】考查时态。根据语境可知,此处叙述发生在过去的情况,应用一般过去时,故填started。

9.(2018全国III卷)I quickly lower myself,ducking my head to avoid looking directly into his eyes so he doesn't feel        (challenge).
【答案】challenged
【解析】考查时态。此处表示“我迅速低下头避免和它直视,以便它不会感到受到挑战”,主语he和challenge构成被动关系,故填challenged。

10.(2018全国III卷)True to a gorilla's unaggressive nature,the huge animal         (mean) me no real harm.
【答案】meant
【解析】考查时态。由于此处描述的动作已经发生,故用一般过去时。

11.(2018浙江卷) I still remember visiting a friend who'd lived here for five years and I         (shock) when I learnt she hadn't cooked once in all that time.
【答案】was shocked
【解析】考查时态和语态。根据语境可知,此处表示“我感到很震惊”,shock与主语I为被动关系,同时根据后面的learnt可知,时态为一般过去时,所 640?wx_fmt=jpeg.jpg 以填was shocked。句意:我还记得访问过一个住在这里5年的朋友,当我知道她在这段时间里没有煮过一次饭的时候,我很震惊。

12. 【2018·浙江】While regularly eating out seems to ___61___(become) common for many young people in recent years, it’s not without a cost.
【答案】have become
【解析】考查动词时态。根据时间状语in recent years可知用现在完成时,seems to后用动词原形,故填have become。

13.(2017全国I卷)When fat and salt    (remove) from food, the food tastes as if it is missing something.
【答案】are removed
【解析】考查时态、语态和主谓一致。根据语境可知此处用一般现在时,由于主语fat and salt是复数概念,且与remove是被动关系,所以填一般现在时的被动语态结构are removed。句意:当脂肪和盐被从食物中除去时,食物的味道就好像它缺少某种东西一样。

14.(2017全国II卷)Steam engines      (use) to pull the carriages and it must have been fairly unpleasant for the passengers,with all the smoke and noise.
【答案】were used
【解析】考查时态和被动语态。steam engines与use是被动关系,且动作发生在过去,故用一般过去时的被动语态。句意:用冒着烟雾和带有噪音的蒸汽机拉马车,这对乘客来说一定是相当不愉快的体验。

15.(2017全国II卷)Later, engineers         (manage) to construct railways in a system of deep tunnels (隧道), which became known as the Tube.
【答案】managed
【解析】考查时态。全文讲述的是发生在过去的事情,故用一般过去时。句意:后来,工程师们成功地在一个深挖隧道的系统中建造铁路,这种系统被称为地铁。

16.(2017全国III卷)Sarah          (tell) that she could be Britain's new supermodel, earning a million dollars in the next year.
【答案】has been told/was told
【解析】考查动词的时态和语态。根据语境,萨拉应该是“被告知”她能成为英国新的超模儿,可以用现在完成时或一般过去时。句意:有人告诉萨拉,她可能成为英国的新超级名模,下一年可以赚一百万美元。

17.(2017全国III卷)But at the moment,school       (come) first.
【答案】comes
【解析】考查动词时态。此处为陈述客观事实,故用一般现在时。

18.【2017·浙江卷6月】Pahlsson and her husband 62.________ (search) the kitchen, checking every corner, but turned up nothing. “I gave up hope of finding my ring again,” she says. She never replaced it.                           
Pahlsson and her husband now think the ring probably got 63.________ (sweep) into a pile of kitchen rubbish and was spread over the garden.
【答案】searched 【解析】考查动词的时态。根据语意可知,他们过去曾搜遍了整个厨房,故填searched。
【答案】 swept  【解析】考查过去分词。此处是get done结构,表示被动,意为“被扫进了垃圾堆”。

19. (2016·全国卷Ⅲ)Sometimes chopsticks are quite artistic. Truly elegant chopsticks might        (make) of gold and silver with Chinese characters.
【答案】be made
【解析】考查情态动词表推测。be made 根据语境可知,筷子是被制造的。此处为含有情态动词的被动语态might be done。

20.【2016·全国新课标I】So it was a great honour to be invited backstage at the not-for-profit Panda Base, where ticket money helps pay for research, I_____62_(allow)to get up close to these cute animals at the 600-acre centre.
【答案】was allowed
【解析】考查时态和语态。根据句意可知作者是被允许走近这些动物, be allowed to do sth“被允许做某事”。

21.【2016·全国新课标III】阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。
Confucius believed knives would remind people of killings and     49    (be) too violent for use at the table.
【答案】were
【解析】考查时态。根据句意可知,这里指的是刀子因太暴力而不适合在餐桌上使用,believed后跟一个宾语从句,and连接了两个并列的谓语,主语knives是复数,根据时态一致的原则,这里用一般过去时,故填were。

22.【2016·上海】(B)In recent years, stress(33)______(regard) as a cause of a whole range of medical problems, from high blood pressure to mental illness.
【答案】has been regarded  
【解析】考查时态语态。本句的时间状语是in recent years最近几年以来,该时间状语通常和现在完成时连用,且句子主语stress与动词regard构成被动关系,所以使用现在完成时的被动语态形式has been regarded。

23.【2016·四川】
The giant panda 41  (love) by people throughout the world.
Then, after two and a half years, the mother 49  (drive)the young panda away.
【答案】is loved 【解析】句意:大熊猫被全世界的人喜欢。根据句意可知用一般现在时态的被动语态,The giant panda是单数第三人称形式,故填is loved。
【答案】drove  【解析】句意:然后,两年半后妈妈让小熊猫离开。根据句意可知用一般过去时态,故填drove。

24.(2015·全国Ⅰ,61)It was raining lightly when I    (arrive) in Yangshuo just before dawn.  
【答案】arrived
【解析】根据前后句时态可知,此处用一般过去时。
25.(2015·全国Ⅰ,67)Yangshuo    (be) really beautiful.  
【答案】is 
【解析】这里表述的是客观事实,故用一般现在时。

26.(2014·全国Ⅰ,61)It    (be)unimaginable that it could ever be cleaned up.  
【答案】was
【解析】此空应与后面的could在时态上保持一致,故用一般过去时。

27.(2015·全国Ⅱ,68)This cycle    (go) day after day: The walls warm up during the day and cool off during the night...
【答案】goes
【解析】此空应与后面的warm在时态上保持一致,故用一般现在时。

28.(2014·全国Ⅱ,65)A boy on a bike     (catch) my attention. He was riding beside the bus and waving his arms.  
【答案】caught 
【解析】根据下文中的was可知,该句谓语动词用一般过去时。

29.(2012·新课标Ⅰ,23)“Life is like walking in the snow,” Granny used to say, “because every step     (show).”
【答案】shows 
【解析】这句话说的是客观事实,故用一般现在时。

30.(2012·新课标Ⅱ,18)The manager    (tell)the workers how to improve the program since 9 am.  
【答案】has been telling 
【解析】此处表示从九点钟一直持续并依然在进行的动作,故用现在完成进行时。

III.短文改错
1.(2019全国III卷)Though it may appear simple, it required a lot of ideas and efforts.                 
【答案】required改为requires
【解析】本句考查动词的时态。短文的主体时态都是现代时。故把 required改为 requires。

2.(2018全国I卷)During my last winter holiday, I went to the countryside with my father to visit my grandparents. I find a big change there.                                                            
【答案】find改为found
【解析】本句考查动词的时态。find改为found。考查时态。根据前一句中的时间状语“During my last winter holiday”可知,本文讲述作者去年寒假的故事。所以此处应用一般过去时,故把find改为found。句意:在去年寒假,我和父亲去乡下看望我的祖父母,我发现那里有很大的变化。

3.(2018全国II卷)Still I unwilling to play the game with them sometimes.                        
【答案】在I后加was
【解析】考查谓语动词。此句缺谓语动词,be unwilling to do sth.是固定用法,表示“不愿做某事”。结合语境和时态可知,应用一般过去时,故在I后加was。

4.(2018全国III卷)It was Monday morning,and the writing class had just begin.                       
【答案】begin改为begun
【解析】考查谓语动词。根据语境可知,此处为过去完成时,故应用过去分词。

5.(2017全国I卷)Before getting into the car, I thought I had learned the instructor's orders, but once I started the car,my mind goes blank.                                                                           
【答案】goes→went
【解析】考查谓语动词。文章描述过去的经历,上下文均使用了相应的过去时态,这里应保持一致,用一般过去时,所以把goes改为went。句意:在上车之前,我以为我已经领会了教练的指令,但是一旦我发动了这辆车,我的头脑就变得空白了。

5. 【2018·全国III】The classroom is a place for learning and that include leaning from textbooks, and mistakes as well.
【答案】includes
【解析】考查时态及主谓一致。that作主语,谓语动词用第三人称单数includes。

6.(2017全国II卷)When summer came, they will invite their students pick the fresh vegetables!         
【答案】came→comes
【解析】考查谓语动词。when引导的时间状语从句通常用一般现在时表示将来。

7.(2017全国III卷)I had grown not only physically, but also mentally in the past few years.            
【答案】had改为have
【解析】考查谓时态。由in the past few years可知句子要用现在完成时。

8.(2017全国III卷)About one month after this photo was taken, I entered my second year of high school and become a new member of the school music club.                                                  
【答案】become改为became
【解析】考查谓时态。句子用了过去时,and连接并列谓语entered和became。故把become改为became
句意:在这张照片拍摄一个月后,我进入高中二年级,成为学校音乐俱乐部的新成员。

9.[2017·全国卷Ⅰ]once I started the car, my mind goes blank.
【答案】goes改为went 
【解析】考查时态。根据前文中的started可知时态为一般过去时,故将goes改为went。

10.【2016·全国新课标I】Some people even had to wait outside
【答案】had →have  
【解析】考查动词时态。文章是介绍现在的情况,应该用一般现在时。

11.【2016·全国新课标II】We can chose between staying at home and take a trip.
【答案】chose改为choose
【解析】考查句子结构。“情态动词+动词原形”才可以在句中作为谓语部分,而本句中chose是过去式。

12.【2016·全国新课标III】They always tell me what to do and how to do it.
【答案】tell—told【解析】考查时态。通篇回忆过去的事情,使用的一般过去时,故把tell改为told。

13.【2016·浙江】He would ask who we was and pretend not to know us.
【答案】was改成were
【解析】这句话的主语是we,谓语用复数,而且这篇文章是作者回忆小时候的事情,用一般过去时。故was改成were。

14.(2015·全国Ⅰ,短文改错)When I was a child, I hoped to live in the city. I think I would be happy there.
【答案】think →thought 这里用一般过去时,表示“过去认为”,故将think改为thought。

15.(2015·全国Ⅰ,短文改错)Lots of studies have been shown that global warming has already become a very serious problem.
【答案】去掉been 
【解析】主语与谓语为主动关系,这里不需要用被动语态。

16.(2015·全国Ⅰ,短文改错)We must found ways to protect our environment.
【答案】found →find 
【解析】情态动词must后接动词原形。

17.(2015·全国Ⅱ,短文改错)Tony was scared and begun to cry.
【答案】begun →began 
【解析】根据and前面的谓语动词的时态可知,此处应用一般过去时。

18.(2015·全国Ⅱ,短文改错)A woman saw him crying and telling him to wait outside the shop.
【答案】telling →told 
【解析】tell与前面的saw为并列谓语,故用一般过去时。

19.(2014·全国Ⅰ,短文改错)Since then—for all these years—we had been allowing tomatoes to self-seed where they please.
【答案】had →have 
【解析】根据前面的Since then可知,此处需用现在完成时,故将had改为have。

20.(2014·全国Ⅱ,短文改错)My dream school look like a big garden. There are all kinds of flowers and trees around the classroom buildings.
【答案】look →looks 
【解析】该句主语是单数,故谓语动词应用第三人称单数形式。

21.(2014·全国Ⅱ,短文改错)We can lie on the grass for a rest, or sat by the lake listening to music.
【答案】sat →sit 
【解析】根据连词or和情态动词can可知,or后面的动词应用原形。

22.(2013·全国Ⅰ,短文改错)I was only four when she passes away.
【答案】passes → passed 
【解析】根据上下文时态一致原则,从句谓语动词应用一般过去时。

23.(2013·全国Ⅱ,短文改错)Tea in China was traditionally drank from cups without handles.
【答案】drank →drunk 
【解析】根据语境可知,此处应用drink的过去分词。

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